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Biologists have long known that bones glow under ultraviolet (UV) light, but the researchers were astonished to learn that chameleons could harness this characteristic to display visible fluorescent patterns through their skin, study co-author Frank Glaw, a herpetology curator at the Bavarian State Collection of Zoology (ZSM) in Munich, Germany, said in a statement.

"That animals use this phenomenon to fluoresce themselves has surprised us and was previously completely unknown," Glaw said.

A panther chameleon (<i>Furcifer pardalis</i>) from Madagascar puts its best face forward.
A panther chameleon (Furcifer pardalis) from Madagascar puts its best face forward.
Credit: David Prötzel (ZSM/LMU)


Fluorescence, in which special structures glow in the presence of light, differs from bioluminescence, a process that describes light generated by a chemical reaction between compounds in an animal's body. Fireflies, some types of fungi and numerous deep-sea creatures are bioluminescent, while fluorescent animals include scorpionscoralsjellyfish, a rare type of sea turtle, and now, chameleons.

The study's authors looked at 160 specimens representing 31 species in the Calumna genus, a group of chameleons native to Madagascar, and 165 specimens from 20 species of the Furcifer genus, found in Madagascar and parts of Africa. They photographed living animals in their habitats as well as preserved specimens, using UV light to illuminate the chameleons and reveal their glowing patterns.

Next, they turned to micro-computed tomography — 3D X-ray imaging on the microscopic level — to literally connect the dots, matching the glowing spots in the patterns to raised bumps in the lizards' bones known as tubercles, which provided the source of the glow.

In the brown leaf chameleon (<i>Brookesia superciliaris</i>), tubercles on its skeleton generate glowing patterns of dots that are visible through its skin.
In the brown leaf chameleon (Brookesia superciliaris), tubercles on its skeleton generate glowing patterns of dots that are visible through its skin.
Credit: David Prötzel (ZSM/LMU)


Nearly all the species revealed previously unseen blue patterns on their skin when under UV light, the researchers discovered. Most of the lizards displayed patterning on their heads, but some showed fluorescent markings across their bodies, the study's first author David Prötzel, a ZSM doctoral student, said in the statement. The patterns appeared blue because the lizards' thin outer layer of skin serves as a filter, nudging the fluorescence toward the blue end of the spectrum, according to the study.

The thin skin stretched over the bumps serves as a window, allowing UV light to reach the bone and then enabling the shine to reflect through the skin. In shadowy, humid forest habitats, intermittently-visible fluorescent patterns could allow the lizards to signal each other without drawing the attention of predators, the study authors wrote.

Patterns tended to cluster around the chameleons' eyes and the front of their heads, areas known to be important for communication between individuals. On average, male specimens across species displayed more patterning than females; while it is still uncertain how the chameleons may use fluorescence, this male-skew suggests it may play a role in sexual selection, though further study will be required to say for sure, the scientists explained.

"Fluorescence in terrestrial vertebrates has been underestimated until now, and its role in the evolution of ornamentation remains largely unexplored, but this is a promising avenue for future research," the study authors reported.

The findings were published online Jan. 15 in the journal Scientific Reports.

Original article on Live Science.

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The first post was interesting. 

I do not want anything political/racial in nature on our forum.

We're a gaming clan forum not a political discussion board. 


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If I may make note of one thing in today's news... 3 political prisoners are released by the government of N.Korea ahead of historic peace talks featuring de-nuclearizing and reuniting Korea after a 60 year war seemingly about to result in nuclear confrontation. I, if not the Nobel committee would like to congratulate our deplorable President Donald J. Trump for a dazzling foriegn policy success and a boon to the future of Mankind.

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4 hours ago, SFI'BeZerKoManDr said:

Not seeing the fun there.........................

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Elite-  the fun would be finally being able to do away with this monstrosity and bring hope to the people in these gulags and a people starving and cut off from the world.  June 12th in Singapore- that's a fun time coming!

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However it is political in nature (June 12th if I get what you are hinting at, a meeting between politicians)


 I really don't want a gaming clan forum to become an outlet for politics. As I have stated before. 

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Some actual fun facts. 

1. German chocolate cake is named after a guy named Sam German, not the country.

2. Almost as many people were killed by guillotine in Nazi Germany as in the French Revolution. (ok this one isn't "fun" )

3. The creature that kills the most people every year isn't snakes, sharks, or even other humans — it's the mosquito.

4. The Sun City Poms is a cheerleading squad in Arizona that only people 55 or older can join.

5. "What in tarnation?" is literally just another way of saying, "What the hell?"

6. Chainsaws, the horror-movie murder weapon of choice, were invented for aid in childbirth😊.

7. There's an island in Japan you can visit that's inhabited only by friendly bunnies.

8. There are actually more public libraries in the US than McDonald's.

9. The last letter added to the English alphabet wasn't Z — it was the letter J.

10. In 1518, a “dancing plague” took over the town of Strasbourg, France.

11. People wore fake moles (or "beauty patches") made of velvet, silk, or mouse skin in the 18th century as a fashion statement.

12. Before the invention of color TV, 75% of people said they dreamed in black and white. Today, only 12% do.

13. A female architecture student prevented a Manhattan skyscraper from collapsing in the 1970s when she caught a massive design flaw.

14. It's illegal to own just one guinea pig in Switzerland because they get lonely.

15. Wombat poop is cube-shaped.

16. The British royal family isn't allowed to play Monopoly.

17. Popcorn wasn't always a beloved movie snack — in fact, prior to the Great Depression, movie theaters hated popcorn.

18. Paper bags aren't any better for the environment than plastic ones.

19. In the 19th century, experts warned women about a disease called bicycle face, which meant getting stuck with the awkward faces they made while biking.

20. Until the 1980s, it was illegal for a woman to drive a car down Main Street in Waynesboro, Virginia, unless her husband was walking in front of the car waving a red flag.

21. The voice of Mickey Mouse and the voice of Minnie Mouse got married IRL.

22. A can of Mountain Dew can dissolve a mouse 😳.

23. For a short time, the planet Uranus was named...George.

24. Movies have to clarify that they're fiction because of a 1930s lawsuit that traces back to none other than Rasputin.

25. Iceland has an elf whisperer who inspects construction sites before anything gets built to make sure no elves are hanging around.

26. In the 1920s, women in several US cities organized Anti-Flirt Clubs in to combat catcalling.

27. Toilet seat covers are basically pointless.

28. There is an island in the Bahamas that's inhabited only by swimming pigs.

29. Richard Nixon once smuggled a suitcase full of weed through the airport for Louis Armstrong.

30. Ancient Greeks came up with the idea of cyclops after they found a fossil of a mammoth, and had no idea what it was.

31. There are 70 (!) ingredients in a McRib sandwich.

32. There are lower-case numbers in addition to lower-case letters.

33. The first person to perform a successful C-section in South Africa was Dr. James Barry...a doctor who was actually a woman.

34. For a brief time, Melbourne had the best name on the planet: Batmania.

35. In 1981, a black lab named Bosco was elected honorary mayor of Sunol, California.

36. Lego is the largest tire manufacturer in the world.

37. A "buttload" is a real measurement of weight.

38. 4% of the sand on Normandy beach is made up of shrapnel from D-Day that has broken down.

39. If someone gives opinions on topics they know nothing about, they're an ultracrepidarian.

40. Canadians say "sorry" so much that The Apology Act was passed in 2009, declaring that an apology can't be used as evidence of admission of guilt.

41. Amelia Earhart and Eleanor Roosevelt once ditched a White House dinner party to go on a joyride flight to Baltimore.

42. There's a high school in Minnesota that gives service dogs yearbook photos.

43. Most American movie villains have British accents because we associate them with having high intellect and low morals.

44. Earth used to be covered with giant mushrooms that were 24 feet tall and three feet wide, instead of trees.

45. Mother's Day was quite literally invented to be anti-commercialism.

46. There's a sexual phenomenon named after President Calvin Coolidge.

47. The logo for Chupa Chups was designed by Salvador Dalí.

48. Modern thong underwear was introduced by Fiorello LaGuardia, the mayor of New York City.

49. The Hermitage Museum in St. Petersburg, Russia, has so many cats on its grounds that it employs a "Press Secretary to the Cats."

50. A writer predicted how the Titanic would sink in 1898, 13 years before it was even built.

51. There's a town in Poland where everything is decorated with paintings of flowers.

52. There are trees that can grow more than one kind of fruit, and they're called fruit salad trees.

53. "Horizontal refreshment" was 19th century slang for sex.

54. In Queensland, Australia, it's illegal to own a pet rabbit unless you're a magician.

55. Elizabeth Jennings Graham did what Rosa Parks did, but a century earlier on a New York City streetcar. Her eventual lawsuit led to the desegregation of New York's public transit system.

56. Sea otters have a pouch under their forearm to store their favorite rocks.

57. T-shirts were originally marketed to unmarried men who didn't know how to sew buttons back on collared shirts by themselves.

58. Prior to the 20th century, squirrels were one of America's most popular pets.

59. All colors of Froot Loops have the same flavor.

60. April 18, 1930, was such a slow news day that at 6:30 PM, the BBC's radio announcer said, “There is no news."

61. Before the 1800s, people had a "first" and "second sleep." They would sleep 3-4 hours, wake up for 2-3 hours to do some type of activity, then go back to sleep until morning.

62. Cows have "best friends" and get stressed when separated.

63. Ketchup was sold as medicine in the 1830s.

64. Robert Todd Lincoln, Abraham Lincoln's son, was in close proximity to three out of four presidential assassinations.

65. If you're being violent or drunk in Japan, police will get a futon and roll you into a burrito.

66. All mammals take about 12 seconds to poop, regardless of size.

67. Miami is the only major US city founded by a woman.

68. The story you've probably heard about lemmings jumping off of cliffs to their deaths is FAKE.

69. Anxious travelers can play with mini horses at a Kentucky airport.

70. In 1965, a patent was filed for a "birthing apparatus" which would spin pregnant women around at as much as 7G until their baby was flung out from the centrifugal force.

71. A cat co-authored a physics paper in 1975.

72. Cornflakes were invented to prevent masturbation.

73. When the University of Nebraska plays football at home, the stadium becomes the state's third largest city.

74. Shaggy from Scooby Doo's real name is Norville Rogers.

75. Every year on Aug. 5, the Mars Curiosity rover sings itself a sad, solitary "Happy Birthday."

76. There are turtle tunnels in Japan to save them from being run over by trains.

77. Snakes can belch fire.

78. "She sells seashells by the seashore" was written about an actual person named Mary Anning.

79. Mr. Rogers announced that he was feeding his fish on every episode of his show because a blind viewer once asked if they were okay.

80. Red Sour Patch Kids are the exact same candy as Swedish Fish, just with some sour sugar sprinkled on them.

81. Baby puffins are called pufflings.

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Some more: 

1. Ronald MacDonald is called Donald MacDonald in Japan, because of the lack of a clear “R” sound in the Japanese language.



2. The word “Pencil” is derived from the Latin word for “small penis”.



3. In Texas killing Bigfoot is legal, if you can find him.

4. In a perfect example of irony, the girlfriend of the founder of match.com left him for someone she found on match.com.


5. Spaniards use the same word for “wives” as they do for “handcuffs”.


6. The only member of ZZ Top without a beard is named Frank Beard.


7. Reincarnation is illegal in China, unless one consults with and obtains permission from the government.


8. The average fart exists the body at a speed of 7 miles per hour.


9. The Greeks believed that redheads turn into vampires after death.


10. West Side Story was originally titled East Side Story and the main conflict was between an Irish and a Jewish family.


11. The theme tune for Saddam Hussein’s 2002 political campaign was Whitney Houston’s “I will always love you”.


12. Shakira wasn’t allowed in her high school choir because the teacher thought she sounded like a goat.


13. In 2012 a 3-year-old boy was elected mayor of Dorset, Minnesota. He was not re-elected for a second term.


14. In Oklahoma, taking a bite out of another person’s hamburger is illegal.


15. The word “mortgage” comes from a french term meaning “death contract”.


16. The medical condition “Paris Syndrome” is suffered mainly by Japanese who visit Paris, and find it isn’t what they expected.


17. In 2011 a piece of “non-visible” art was bought for $10,000.


18. Scientific studies have proved that most people cannot distinguish expensive wines from inexpensive ones by taste.


19. 55% of American believe they are smarter than the average American.


20. To help pandas adapt to life in the wild researchers at a wildlife centre in China wear panda costumes while working in the enclosures.


21. 7% of religious Americans pray to God about finding a good parking spot.


22. “Fart Proudly”, a scientific essay about farts, was written by none other than Benjamin Franklin.


23. One of the available languages on Facebook is “Pirate”.


24. The scientific name for a Western Lowland Gorilla is “Gorilla gorilla gorilla”.


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You can treat mosquito bites by applying hot spoons on bites as it breaks up the venom.  It usually takes a couple applications.  You can heat spoons in boiled water and cool slightly but it won't work unless its very hot.

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17 hours ago, SFI'BeZerKoManDr said:

You can treat mosquito bites by applying hot spoons on bites as it breaks up the venom.  It usually takes a couple applications.  You can heat spoons in boiled water and cool slightly but it won't work unless its very hot.

Sound like that could hurt of they stayed in the boiling water too long.  :shock:

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It does not feel pleasant.  Also it might not work if your bites are from something else like a spider.  You fan the spoon a couple times and it cools it. 


...You can pour boiling water into a glass cup without cracking it only if there's a metal spoon in the cup, because it absorbs heat

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Pockets of methane gas form blue lava and mini glass fragments precipitate as lava reaches sea..


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Due to inflation, the Marxist economy of Venusuela which was set up entirely on oil production with the lower prices of oil has completely tanked.  Currently the exchange rate for the Venusuelan "Bolivar" is 5 million for $1.45, an average monthly wage.  Skilled professionals including oil workers are fleeing the country as the population starves.  At one million Bolivars you can buy a single cup of coffee.:coffee::smiling:🐽🐼

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